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10 Websites and Games Like Club Penguin (Virtual Worlds)

There are many websites and games like Club Penguin that offer a great experience for children, teenagers and even their parents.

I originally put this list together for a family friend and decided to share it here so other fans of the Club Penguin universe can find similar experiences that are both fun, friendly and safe. If you have any additional favourite games please don’t hesitate to share them in the comment section at the end of the page.

If you are a fan of Club Penguin looking for another fun virtual world to play or a parent seeking information about other safe online games like Club Penguin for your child (or children) then this page will prove to be an invaluable resource.

This flood of games into the market has produced some real great games like Club Penguin but also many poor game experiences and even some fantastic ones that have closed down (such as ToonTown Online and Star86) which can also be frustrating after having invested so much time in a game that you love.

While Club Penguin was one of the first really successful games in this space there has been a huge increase in the number of virtual worlds targeted at tweens over the past few years as companies quickly realise it is a huge (and growing market).

PGA golf betting odds for players to win the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational

In his last four tournaments he’s failed to crack the top 25 and he finished last week tied for 66th. Toms has 13 career PGA Tour wins including a major but he’s not won a tournament since 2011.

Other than a 5th place finish at the Arnold Palmer in March, Zach Johnson has not played well enough to win in 2016. Marc Leishman has one career win in 188 starts. Don’t be fooled, though, as Kuchar also finished 3rd at the Players but that is not winning. Matt Kuchar has not won a PGA Tour event in over two years now and he should be higher odds to win this week.

Chris Kirk is the defending champion in this tournament but that was the last of his four PGA Tour wins. After missing the cut in his two previous starts, Jimmy Walker tied for 24th last week. Schwartzel won the Valspar Championship in March and he could play well this week.

Jason Bohn only has two career wins and his last win was in 2010 and he’s missed the cut in his last three PGA Tour starts. Could he win again this year? Maybe, but who wants to bet on it?

Bill Haas tied for 43rd place last week. Chappell is lower odds here because he finished alone in 2nd place at the Players in his last start. Chris Kirk, Charl Schwartzel – 35 to 1 odds each. Kirk missed the cut in his last start at the Players. But Jason Bohn did finish tied for 2nd in this tournament last year just one stroke off the lead.

Colt Knost is 30 and he’s yet to win on tour but he tied for 3rd at the Players and was 4th last week in his last two starts. Here is a list of the betting odds for the PGA golfers to win the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational.

T-11. Brandt Snedeker has missed the cut in his last two starts and in three of his last four tournaments but he did tie for 2nd place here last year just one stroke off the lead.

Notables

4. That was the last of his three PGA Tour wins.

T-7. Jordan Spieth – 6 to 1

David Toms won this tournament in 2011. Jim Furyk has one win on tour since 2010 and he’s making just his third start back after wrist surgery.

T-17. Ryan Palmer missed the cut last week. While the meltdown is not a good sign, Jordan Spieth did miss the cut the week before at the Players in his first start since the Masters so he is rounding into form and he did tie for 2nd place in this tournament last year.

Jason Bohn – 100 to 1 odds

At age 29, Kevin Chappell is still looking for his first PGA Tour win. He won the Puerto Rico Open for his first career win at the end of March. Charl Schwartzel tied for 58th place last week but that was his first tournament since he missed the cut at the Masters. He’s a big threat this week to win.

3. On top of that, Bohn suffered a heart attack during the Honda Classic back in February. Matt Kuchar – 14 to 1

Since winning the Texas Open for his 4th PGA Tour win on April 21st, Charley Hoffman finished 11th at the Zurich Classic, missed the cut at the Players and finished tied for 12th last week at the Byron Nelson. Kevin Chappell – 28 to 1

The Dean & DeLcua Invitational dates back to 1946. Ben Hogan holds the record for most wins in the tournament with five. He’s a mild threat here to get his 6th PGA win here. Chappell also finished alone in 2nd place at the RSM Classic and the Arnold Palmer this season so he’s been close to winning but he’s still a maiden on tour.

Adam Scott finished tied for 12th at the Players two weeks ago in his last start. Bill Haas, Ryan Palmer – 45 to 1 odds each

At odds of 6 to 1, Jordan Spieth is the betting favorite this week to win the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational. Scott won this tournament in 2014 beating Jason Dufner in a playoff. Adam Scott – 11 to 1

1. Zach Johnson does have two wins in this tournament (2010, 2012).

Listed below are the betting odds and comments for each player who has odds of 50 to 1 or less to win this week. Danny Lee has one win on tour and he finished tied for 18th last week. Then a few notable golfers with much higher odds are listed along with comments why.

Boo Weekley won this tournament in 2013. Patrick Reed has finished alone in 2nd place three times this season but has not won a tournament since January of 2015. At age 32, Kevin Kisner has one career win and he missed the cut in his last two starts. Louis Oosthuizen’s lone PGA win remains the 2010 British Open and he missed the cut last week.

2. Haas has six PGA Tour wins and he was second at the Valspar in March so he’s a mild threat to win this week. Zach Johnson – 22 to 1

The 2016 Dean & DeLuca golf tournament on the PGA Tour is taking place this week from May 26-29, 2016, at the Colonial Country Club located in Fort Worth, Texas. Patton Kizzire is 30 and still looking for his first PGA Tour win.

5. He has three PGA Tour wins but his last win was in 2010.

Kevin Na has one career win in 314 starts. Adam Scott has two wins in 2016 and 13 total wins on the PGA Tour. Jordan Spieth was in position to win last week at the Byron Nelson playing with Brooks Koepka in the final pairing Sunday just two strokes back but Spieth shot a 74 and ended up tied for 18th place. Nuff said. Colt Knost, Tony Finau, Marc Leishman, Kevin Kisner, Patton Kizzire – 50 to 1 odds each

T-13. Jimmy Walker, Brandt Sendeker, Danny Lee, Jason Dufner – 40 to 1 odds each

Boo Weekley – 80 to 1 odds

Matt Kuchar shot -14 under last week to finish alone in 3rd place at the Byron Nelson. Tony Finau tied for 12th last week. Kevin Na, Louis Oosthuizen, Patrick Reed, Jim Furyk – 33 to 1 odds each

Good luck to all the PGA golfers and especially the bettors this week at the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational at Colonial in Fort Worth, Texas!

T-19. Charley Hoffman – 25 to 1

6. Players like Phil Mickelson, Lee Trevino and Zach Johnson are tied for the second most wins with two each.

Jason Dufner has a win in 2016 and he’s finished second in this tournament twice in the past (2012, 2014)

H1b Visa Information And Requirements

Spouses and unmarried children under the age of 21 may receive visas as well. H1B visa holders can travel in and out of the United States, when it has been granted by a United States Consulate. The H-1B visa covers many fields of work ranging from architecture and engineering to health and medicine. 2 year Diploma) plus six years work experience.

A license to practice in the chosen occupation (if such a license is required to practice).

Passport

One Photograph

A letter from the Current Employer

Offer letter form the company in United States

Resume of the applicant

Sample Company projects documents and some documents describing what the company does

Approval Notice (form I 797) of the original petition

Employment Verification letter

6 Months Bank Statements

Degree Certificates

List of documents required for H1B Visa

Current H1B Visa holders can transfer their visa and start work for a new employer once H1B transfer petition is submitted to the USCIS by the new sponsor company. One of the main benefits of the H1B visa is that it is a ‘dual intent’ visa – you can apply for a Green Card (Legal Permanent Residency).

H1B visas are subject to annual numerical limits, currently 65,000 for Fiscal Year 2011. This visa allows a foreign national to be sponsored by a US Company for a period of six years and entitles your spouse (husband/wife) and children to accompany you and live in United States of America. H1B holder can buy or sell property in USA.. Certain H1B holders may be eligible to extend their H1B status beyond the six year limit under AC21 guidelines. Using the Approval Notice, the applicant may obtain the H1 visa from the US Consulate. The attached documents will be checked along with the application. H1B Visa Transfer

H1B Visa Eligibility

Last 3 months pay slips.

H1B approval documents.

Passport copies.

Copies of I-94 records.

Copy of Social Security Card.

Copy of existing valid visa

Latest Resume.

Copy of all your Diploma/Degrees.

In case of non approval of the H1B transfer, the original H1B visa will be lost. If all the requirements are met, USCIS will send an approval notice to the US employer and approval notice will be sent. H1B transfers are unlimited. Hence before entering into a new job, it is always better to complete the visa transfer.

Once the application for H1B Visa has been submitted to USCIS(United States Citizenship and Immigration Service) will be reviewed for completeness. Individuals can not apply for an H1B visa. During the H1B transfer procedure, the following documents may be required:

Want to live and work in the United States legally? The H1B visa might be the perfect visa for you. If the application is denied, the USCIS will notify in writing the reason for rejection.

Persons who hold a four year college degree or higher educational degree, or the equivalent in work experience.

12 years work experience, OR a mix of further education (e.g

Gambling | Buzzle.com

Reasons Why Gambling Should Be Illegal

Why gambling should be illegal

What are the adverse effects of gambling? How does it affect society? Should gambling be legal? We don’t think so and here we bring you an article that discusses the reasons why gambling should be illegal.

Negative Effects of Gambling

Gambling is bad

Gambling is the act of betting money with the expectation of profits. How does gambling affect an individual? What are its effects on society? Read this Buzzle article to know about the negative impact of gambling.

Internet Gambling Facts and Problems

What do you know about Internet gambling? Are you aware of the problems associated with it? Read on to know them and find some alarming facts about online gambling, in this article.

Impact of Internet Gambling

So many of us are attracted to gambling online. The thrill in betting money and that excitement in the uncertainty of winning or losing it is addictive. Some of us are addicted to the habit, without even knowing that. With so many…

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India Vs Sri Lanka 1st T20 Live Streaming, India Vs Sri Lanka 1st T20 Match Live Score

By: Lucy Hanes | Dec 9th 2009 – The First T20 Match between India and Sri Lanka is going to happen on 09, December, 2009 at Vidarbha Cricket Association Ground, Nagpur. Because of their performance they … Indian cricket team is No.1 cricket team in the ICC Test rankings

Gambling | Buzzle.com

Internet Gambling Facts and Problems

What do you know about Internet gambling? Are you aware of the problems associated with it? Read on to know them and find some alarming facts about online gambling, in this article.

Negative Effects of Gambling

Gambling is bad

Gambling is the act of betting money with the expectation of profits. With so many…. Some of us are addicted to the habit, without even knowing that. The thrill in betting money and that excitement in the uncertainty of winning or losing it is addictive. How does gambling affect an individual? What are its effects on society? Read this Buzzle article to know about the negative impact of gambling.

Reasons Why Gambling Should Be Illegal

Why gambling should be illegal

What are the adverse effects of gambling? How does it affect society? Should gambling be legal? We don’t think so and here we bring you an article that discusses the reasons why gambling should be illegal.

Impact of Internet Gambling

So many of us are attracted to gambling online

AIDS Patient Zero – InfoBarrel

Louis, Missouri.  His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George.  Rayford was described as slender.  His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness. 

On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.

Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there.  She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill.  Her symptoms confounded her colleagues.  She died in December 1977.  Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive.  During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.

The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men.  These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials.  As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male.  World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too. 

By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor.  A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay). 

The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene.  The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.

The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture.  Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island.  Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”. 

In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.

The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in.  Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.

Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary.  What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously.  It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966. 

Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams.  It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse).  One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background).  He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him.  To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.

As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida.  It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history. 

Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep). 

Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953.  His life was on a collision course with history.  In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active.  [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown.  He may have been bisexual.] 

The airline industry developed glamour.  The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless.  These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime.  Therefore, they must be promiscuous.  The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring.  Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses.  The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day).  Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.

Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.  

Less Than Zero

The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version.  One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871.  HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922.  Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.

In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.

In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived.  Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities.  Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men.  They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco.  [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).

Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.

False Positive

From a front-line perspective

The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants.  This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service.  Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press.  It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role. 1952-1953).

In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died.  In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive. 

Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem.  And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.

A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though.  Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests.  This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”.  It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly.  Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.

Mr. Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away.  In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved.  Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected.  This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not).  Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.

By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.

Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”.  Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors.  An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh).  [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.] 

Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54.  This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world.  Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there.  Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity.  No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54.  Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies. 

Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities.  His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.

There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?).  Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ [“zero”] instead.

AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. . Memory Elvin Lewis

Dr.  

His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling.  Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs.  Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate. 

***

The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”.  They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American.  They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”.  More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.

In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease.  In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa.  He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea.  He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa.  In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections.  By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver. 

The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within.  Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54’s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself. 

AIDS now had a face.

He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). . Louis. 

This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.

First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners.  After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed.  This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest.  When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer.  Maybe you’ll get it.”

The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning.  Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”)  for “the beginning”.  It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).

He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well.  In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen.  It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame).  The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort.  It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).

Dr. Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.

He started out as a hairdresser.  Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual.  He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job.  He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada.  This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters.  In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.

He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active.  His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr.  Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.

Gateway to the West

The Road to Zero

But, it doesn’t end there. 

Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.

The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS.  That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.

Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did.  This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed. 

A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances.  He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect.  In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim.  Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa).  Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.

Author’s note

Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”. 

Gay men realized the danger.  Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent.  Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others.  They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men.  Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).

He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time).  [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]

For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust. 

Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless.  At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).

Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment.  [Rubell later died of AIDS.]

“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”

Omega Man

Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim.  As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.

This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV. 

Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966.  Other strains have been isolated as well.  As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much). 

Good investigative work requires dogged determination.  Running an enigma to ground can take years. 

AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans.  IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive. 

One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America.  As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate.  As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount.  Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men. 

Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well.  Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.

Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St.

Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.

As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active.  Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic.  His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body. 

Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31.  His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.

In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants.  They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality.  “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.

Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. . It was so unusual at the time . .   The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen.  He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”.  He also had shortness of breath.  His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems).  This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.

Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people. 

This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject.  One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case.  Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America. 

Dugas remained unrepentant.  He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually.  His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex.  Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.”  His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves.  They know what’s going on out there.  They’ve heard about this disease.”  The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer.  I’m going to die and so are you.” 

Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”

The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old).  He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened.  His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically.  The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised.  He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ).  His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”

Ground Zero

Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation.  In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues.  Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected.  Further confirmation testing in 1989  proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St

Top 5 Las Vegas casinos and most winning slots games part 1

Even the accommodations in Las Vegas are overly opulent.

Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $931,740.44 8/1/2012 Mandalay Bay

Wheel of Fortune $1.00 $1,112,650 7/4/2012 Wynn Las Vegas

Wheel of Fortune $1.00 $1,064,121.24 6/21/2012 Hard Rock Hotel & Casino

Money Madness $2,256,246.45 5/28/2012 The Orleans

Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $412,640.33 5/26/2012 Caesars Palace

Money Madness $710,196 1/27/2013 MGM Grand

Money Madness $602,950 1/4/2013 The Palazzo

Wheel of Fortune $1,264,173 1/4/2013 Flamingo

Money Madness $2,832,045 12/29/2012 Caesars Palace

Wheel of Fortune $249,703 12/21/2012 South Point

Check out Vegas.com for up to the minute jackpot totals and list of jackpot hits and locations.

Top 5 Las Vegas casinos and most winning slots games

Zambio

Wheel of Fortune $1.00 $1,224,958.16 5/1/2012 Rio All-Suite Hotel & Casino

Wheel of Fortune $1.00 $1,216,081.79 4/5/2012 The Venetian

Wheel of Fortune $1.00 $1,350,270.42 3/12/2012 Tropicana Laughlin

Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $361,025.76 3/12/2012 Bill’s Gamblin’ Hall & Saloon

Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $489,456.12 2/12/2012 Sam’s Town Hotel & Gambling Hall

If you love playing the slot machines, here are some winning results to remind you that hitting the big one can, and does happen.

Las Vegas offers entertainment, shopping, fine dining, and sightseeing attractions. But, the true allure of Las Vegas, is gaming. . The “Wheel of Fortune” slots may be the hottest slot machines in Vegas, followed by “Money Madness.” Game-on!

This city of excess, is truly one of a kind. In Las Vegas, it’s go big or go home! The top five Las Vegas hotel casinos featured in the attached slideshow, lead the way in sophistication, style and excitement.

In Las Vegas, the lights are brighter, the colors are bolder and the bets are bigger. The excitement of the casino floor, and the hopefulness of the divine possibility of striking it rich. www.vegas.com/gaming/jackpots/

Megabucks $1 $17.3 million 12/17/2012 M Resort

Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $273,884.78 10/27/2012 McCarran International Airport

Wheel of Fortune $1.00 $1,926,336.42 10/20/2012 Harrah’s

Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $795,551.20 10/20/2012 California

Wheel of Fortune $0.25 $225,081.10 8/4/2012 LVH – Las Vegas Hotel & Casino

Checkout the slideshow pictures to see the “Top 5 Casinos.” (Travel Adviser)

You can work hard all of your life to amass a fortune.

On your next visit to Las Vegas, you may want to checkout some of these hot slot games which really seem to be the ones to play, because of the winning history. Winning a fortune on a one-dollar slot machine is a pretty awesome notion, however slim the odds.

The list of winning slots games, prize winnings, dates and winning casinos

Horse Racing Systems: 5 That Work

Most people who love horse racing would be thrilled just to win a little more and lose a little less on their trips to the track.

Horse Racing System #4 – Bet low-priced favorites to place. Because speed figures have gained in popularity over the years, anyone following that system now would have trouble coming up with gas money for the ride home from the track.. My own studies have shown a similar advantage for the inside post in routes.

Instead of blindly betting all horses breaking from the inside, you might use this to supplement your handicapping, paying particular attention to the inside horse, and betting it when you like the horse on other handicapping grounds. They will, however increase the chances of a profitable day at the races by ensuring that your wager dollars go where they have the best chance of success. If the tote board suggests that the public is overlooking these mitigating circumstances, make your play.

First time starters return only about 60 cents on the dollar, and second time starters are only a little better, returning less than 70 cents on the dollar. The inside post in turf routes actually showed a small profit, but this was based on a small sample size and cannot be relied upon. The inside post combined with early speed is a particularly potent combination, since the horse will not have to exert himself as much to gain his preferred position at the front of the pack.

Looking for a dead simple horse racing system that will allow you to quit your job and make a living betting the horses in just 10 minutes a day? Good luck with that!

Second, the very nature of the parimutuel system itself means that any profits to be made from following a particular set of rules will quickly be arbitraged away as the followers of that system drive down the odds of horses chosen by the system.

Horse Racing System #1 – In maiden races, bet the horse with the best last race speed figure that has had at least two career starts. Thanks for reading, and see you in the winner’s circle.

Look for comment lines like “bled”, “lost rider”, “clipped heels”, “stumbled”, “steadied”, “between horses”, “rank”, and “jumped shadows” that suggest that a horse’s last race was not indicative of its true ability. With the BRIS pp’s you can use the Sire Production Factor in concert with the pedigree rating. The horse with the best combination of the two is the play.

None of these systems will make you rich, or even guarantee that you will make a profit. I was able to replicate this result in my own study of nearly 100,000 races conducted a decade later.

In the first place, the parimutuel takeout in horse racing is large (over 15%) and the mutuel pools are relatively efficient, so that even systems with a strong basis in reality can’t overcome the size of the takeout.

Nunamaker reported that the inside post in dirt route races won at a 20% greater than expected rate, and lost only 10 cents on the dollar, much better than the track take. This offers opportunity to more diligent players.

However, just because systems won’t make you rich doesn’t mean there’s no place for them at all in a horseplayer’s arsenal. One of the few anomalies turned up by Michael Nunamaker in his pioneering computer study “Modern Impact Values”, published in 1994, was that horses breaking from the inside post position in route races won more than their fair share of races, and were under-bet by the public. This is another mistake that bettors make: in a race with a clear standout, many people give up on the win pool and bet their choice to place, thinking that they’ll get paid even if the favorite wins.

How do we identify the best pedigree, then? If you’re using the DRF past performances, use the stud fee as a proxy for quality, and the Tomlinson figure to judge suitability for the distance and surface. My computer studies of pedigree, based on nearly 100,000 races, suggest that using pedigree in that manner offers no advantage to the player.

In that spirit. Let me let you in on a little secret about these “magic formulas”. None of them work.

In fact, pedigree does not generally offer wager value with one curious exception: well bred horses do surprisingly well in maiden claiming races. Just don’t expect to quit your day job.

For instance, many speed figure handicappers reported making horse racing profits in the 60’s and 70’s simply by betting horses with the best last race speed figure. Few bother to even look at the comment line for the race, let alone take the trouble to seek out and watch the replay of the race. It must follow, therefore, that if we bet the best horse that has started at least twice, we stand an excellent chance of beating the takeout, particularly in races that have several first and second time starters.

This causes the favorite to be under bet in the place pool, leading to a profit opportunity for us to take advantage of by betting the favorite to place.

For as long as humans have bet on horse racing there have been system sellers trying to con the gullible into parting with their hard earned money with the lure of easy profits to be made on the sport of kings. This system takes advantage of one of the few glaring inefficiencies in the parimutuel pools, namely that first and second time starters are badly over-bet.

The horse with the best last race speed figure (whether Beyer, BRIS, or Equibase) may not be the best horse in the race, but he’s probably not far off, so we can use that as a proxy for selection purposes.

Horse Racing System #3 – In maiden claiming races, bet the horse with the best pedigree. This is somewhat counter-intuitive since you’d expect that horses with good pedigrees that end up in the maiden claiming ranks probably can’t run at all. To the extent that most handicappers use pedigree at all, it’s usually to identify horses that may improve when switched to the turf, or those who may be expected to win as first time starters. It should go without saying that you should actually like the favorite’s chances after evaluating the race with your own handicapping.

Horse Racing System #5 – Bet Horses breaking from the inside post in route races. I’ve identified some of the most useful handicapping factors that have a proven history of doing much better than the track takeout and put them together with some simple rules that should make your trips to the racetrack more fun and profitable. My study suggests that’s not the case.

Horse Racing System #2 – Bet horses that have an excuse for a poor performance in their last race. In most case the public seems to take a horse’s last running line at face value

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